亞裔同黑人聯盟

喺呢個互動頁面中,你將搵到具有歷史意義嘅黑人與亞洲人嘅互動。 每個歷史事件都相互依存,為可持續的關係創造持續的可能性

map of asia in the aesthetic of earthtone watercolors
618‑907
1868-1912
1899-1902
1955
1955-75
2020s‑?
a dark-skinned woman carries her young son and looks intently at the camera / This is a grainy black and white photo from the 1960s
Photo: Brandt, John H. Satun Woman and Child, Satun province, Ban Doan Village, S. Thailand. From the Brandt Image Collection, Keene State College, Mason Library, Orang Asli Archive.

Black people in Asia

As early as the Tang Dynasty (618-907), Black people from Africa were brought to China as the lowest scale in the social hierarchy. The term Negrito was first applied by Spanish sailors in the 16th century after encounters with such people during early forays into the region. The term Kunlun (equivalent of Negrito) slaves appeared in early Chinese poetry. “Orang Asli, the First People” also were in various parts of Southeast Asia and the Asian Pacific Island of Papua New Guinea.

西方種族意識形態喺亞洲

明治時代( 1868-1912 ),科學種族主義喺日本被吸收。 它的現代化進程融合咗西方嘅種族等級觀念。

亞洲嘅非裔美國士兵

好似大衛·費根( David Fagen )噉嘅非裔美國士兵對美國佔領菲律賓感到失望,尤其是喺聽到白人士兵喺指稱菲律賓人時使用「黑鬼」呢個負面嘅字之後。 當地菲律賓人對像大衛·費根此舉動反應熱烈。

Third-World Alliance

In 1955, a significant meeting of the postcolonial era in which 29 state-delegations from Africa and Asia convened in Bandung, Indonesia. Since then, China started its modern relationship with Africa. For example, scholarships to study in China were offered in the early 1960s. Then in the 1980s, students arrived from Africa to learn the language and complete degrees in Mandarin. Even though the 1988 riots against African students in Nanjing (and elsewhere) hindered these exchanges, the number of Africans continued to grow in China.
Delegates attending the Bandung Conference pose for a group photo, April 1955. Photo from The Wilson Center Digital Archive, China and the Asian-African Conference (Documents) (Peking, 1955).

黑人士兵質疑越南戰爭

喺越南戰爭期間,好多黑人士兵反對美國嘅殘酷戰爭和種族主義。

two young Asian teenagers hold up a sign that reads 'Black Lives Matter' amidst a crowd gathered in protest
still image from video by South China Morning Post

Fostering Continuous Solidarity since #BLM

In 2020, protests to support the Black Lives Matter movement arose in multiple countries in Asia, especially around the murder of George Floyd.

map of United States in the aesthetic of earthtone watercolors
1868-
1890s
1909
1920-30s
1950-60s
1960-70s
1966
1967
1967-71
1968-69
1982
1986-1992
2010s

第14修正案及其影響

1868年:黑人活動家爭取建立第14修正案,承認所有在美國出生或歸化的個人都是公民.

1869年:黑人領袖及美國廢奴主義者弗雷德里克·道格拉斯在他的 “Composite Nation” 演講中譴責排華法案。

1897年:美國最高法院根據第14修正案,支持Wong Kim Ark案並承認與生俱來的公民身份(屬地主義)

領導者嘅相互影響

自1890年代以來,來自亞洲和美國黑人嘅自由戰士一直喺相互學習。

莫罕達斯·甘地( Mohandas Gandhi )從廢奴主義者同布克· T·華盛頓( Booker T. Washington )嗰度獲得了見解。 馬丁·路德·金博士直接受到甘地非暴力哲學嘅影響。 呢啲相互影響在其追隨者之間嘅哲學,宗教同科學實踐方面繼續存在。

菲律賓裔美國民權活動家

歷史上嘅菲律賓裔非裔美國人家庭,如鲁菲娜·克萊門特·詹金斯同布法羅士兵中士弗朗西斯·詹金斯,係1909年第一個喺西雅圖定居嘅菲律賓裔美國家庭。 佢哋嘅後代與非裔美國民權活動家並肩作戰。

黑人創嘅新聞報中嘅亞洲記者

在1920年代至1930年代,Hucheshwar Gurusidha Mudgal記者兼泛非主義者Marcus Garvey的The Daily Negro Times和The Negro World的代理執行編輯(紐約)

共同培養領導力

自1950年代以來,好多亞裔美國人與美國黑人民權活動家合作,為所有人爭取自由。 以下是一些例子: 柏克萊/奧克蘭的Yuri Kochiyama,底特律的Grace Lee Boggs,Kiyoshi KuromiyaMineo Katagiri牧師,他們還在1969年建立了亞洲平等聯盟,爭取多種族聯盟。

非裔美國人嘅領導力和民權

民權運動保護所有種族嘅平等權利,包括美國嘅移民。 它進一步為1965年《移民和歸化法》鋪平了道路,該法由亞洲引進了移民。

來自亞洲各國嘅移民人數由1970年代嘅730萬增加到2020年嘅1410萬,自1960年代以來增加咗29倍

Leaders Working for Peace

In 1966, Dr. King and Thích Nhất Hạnh met in Chicago. Both religious leaders dedicated their lives advocating for a society that would treat human beings as people instead of objects.

historical black and white image shows Dr. Martin Luther King seated at a table alongside Thích Nhất Hạnh.
Martin Luther King Jr. & Thích Nhất Hạnh. Credit: Thich Nhat Hanh Foundation (thichnhathanhfoundation.org)

黑人領袖反對越南戰爭

不僅是非裔美國士兵,黑人領導人都利用佢哋嘅平台談論越南嘅非正義戰爭。 1967年,Martin L. King博士發表了“Beyond越南”演講。 1969年,《時代》雜誌嘅非裔美國記者华莱士·特里二世( Wallace Terry II )採訪了近400名黑人士兵,超過一半嘅人認為美國的種族主義應該係佢哋嘅戰場,而唔係佢哋喺越南、老撾同柬埔寨嘅參與。

合作促進政治變革

日裔和非裔美國人聯手廢除咗可能導致總統有權建立集中營嘅《緊急拘留法》。

建立多種族聯盟

在1968/1969年,20歲出頭嘅後生仔採取主動行動,加利福尼亞州建立了多種族聯盟緊,幫助創建了種族研究學位畀少數種族/族裔可以了解他們的歷史和對美國嘅貢獻

杰西·杰克遜牧師與反亞裔仇恨

1982年,華裔美國人文森·陳( Vincent Chin )被兩位白人男性殘忍地謀殺。 當呢種仇恨犯罪嘅肇事者逍遙法外時,杰西杰克遜牧師探訪咗文森特嘅母親莉莉·欽( Lily Chin )以表示支持。

當反亞裔仇恨喺Covid-19大流行期間迅速增加時,杰西杰克遜牧師繼續表現出佢對亞裔美國人嘅支持。

黑人與亞裔和解

1986年,黑人朝鮮聯盟由20名非裔美國人和韓裔美國人組成,佢哋相信透過對話嚟建立更好嘅關係。

1991 ,在羅德尼·金( Rodney King )遭到毒打之後,韓國店主Soon Ja Du指控嘅美國黑人少女拉塔莎·哈林斯( L atasha Harlins )偷竊並開槍打死咗佢。 1992年,Soon Ja Du被判緩刑和毆打羅德尼·金緊嘅警察被盼無最並獲得釋放嘅消息傳出之後,對黑人 生命被持續地糟蹋所引來的憤怒喺洛杉磯爆發了一場暴力衝突。

1992年,黑韓聯盟解散

Further Deepening Solidarity

Black Lives Matter movements and Anti-Asian Hate Awareness generated more mutual support for solidarity between these two communities.

a Black man thinks pensively in the driver's seat while driving
Still image from the documentary Rising Against Asian Hate

想從另一個角度了解亞裔美國人嘅歷史:

A Different Asian American Timeline

by ChangeLab
Website

“The boundaries of Asian American identity, like the boundaries of Asia itself, are always in flux, and were constructed by dynamics of power that need to be studied: imperialism, racial domination, gender oppression, labor exploitation, war, and social movements.”